Monday, February 24, 2020
International marketing - Essay Example Ultimately, the take away message that the reader is instilled with necessarily points definitively to the means by which globalization and the clear and incessant need for differentiation and change ultimately defines the current environment. In such a way, the preceding analysis will first seek to provide a general summary of FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s book and then go on to draw inference with regards to how some of the key concepts and presentations that Friedman made can be utilized in an understanding how a firm/entity engages with a globalized appreciation for the 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s of marketing. Accordingly, through such an analysis, it is the hope of this author that the reader will gain a further level of inference with regards to the way in which Friedman presents his main argument as well as the applicable it and usefulness that these arguments have with relation to specific aspects of marketing that have been discussed thus far within this course. In this particular way, although Friedm an engages with a host of topics, both historical and current, the ultimate goal of his piece is to instruct the reader with regards to the key changes that must take place within the current market in order for both the United States and the individual is this owner within it to continue to leverage degree of profit within the ever-changing dynamics of the global marketplace. In such a way, even though the reader might be distracted at times with the historical and geographic journey that Friedman engages in, the ultimate understanding that is represented within each of these case studies, interviews, historical interpretations, and analysis is with regards to how the current world model has developed and will continue to develop into the near future. One of the key understandings that the reader is left with upon nearing the conclusion of FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s piece is with regards to some of the key forces that pose a severe potential for harm with regards to the current dynamic that is thus far been described in his book. Rather than engaging in a level of sensationalism or fear mongering, Friedman ultimately discusses with the reader a realistic approach to each of these threats and shows how further levels of collaboration/cooperation, within the construct of the globalized system as it currently exists, is ultimately able to defeat these threats. Although there are many salient aspects discussed within FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s book, the reader can specifically relate his interpretation of the interconnected and rapidly changing nature of the current economic and political system that the fines the world as specifically cogent with regards to the 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s of marketing. Naturally, the 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s necessarily refer to price, place, promotion, and product. Within the construct of a globalized world that is increasingly dependent upon the way that each of these 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s is evidenced within given cultures/markets, it becomes apparent to the reader that such an und erstanding and application of FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview, illustrated within his book, is ultimately able to exponentially expand the approach to the individual might have with regards to these 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s. What is meant by this is the fact that the 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s of marketing are oftentimes taught within the construct of a specific geographic setting. For instance, when the student integrates with an understanding of price, promotion, product, and place, the economy is oftentimes understood within the
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Acting style - Essay Example An acting style is the way a play is presented or the way an actor portrays his character. Ã It can refer to quite a few different things - like period acting (roles that take place in a different earlier, era, place or society), or stylized acting (such as the very specific styles used Restoration comedies etc.), or it may refer to verse acting (such as Shakespeare), or proper classical acting (such as ancient Greek plays), or to the early "declaiming" acting (a very stiff, presentational style directly aimed toward the audience), or to modern-day acting (such as we see today in contemporary comedy and drama where actors act realistically). Ã Two major classifications of acting style can be made as presentational and representational. Where representational refers to modern realistic acting and representational refers to the more formal or exaggerated acting styles of old (Kernodle) In 1971, Alan Schneider directed an historic video taped performance of Samuel Becketts Krapps Last Tape, starring Jack MacGowran. The play dramatized an old mans struggle to repossess his youth by searching through reels of audiotape. The style of acting adopted by MacGowarn is simple and realistic as is characteristic in contemporary cinema. He conveys the old mans age and disability (he is nearly half-blind) through body movements and literally no dialogue at all. There are no other actors and the only props are a single table and chair in an otherwise empty room. The film is totally focused on the old man and his every expression. MacGrowan uses his facial and subtle body movements to convey his infirmity and even the joy and difficulty at eating a banana is emoted with great ability and expression in total silence. In 1964 Camera Three, New York, NY produced a short film featuring James Cahill, John Heffernan & Roy Scheider based on excerpts from Ben Jonsons 17th century comedy of
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Understanding Your Role As A Teacher Essay I have been asked to critically examine and discuss the work of three selected authors and to compare and contrast their views. I will link this theory to my experience of working with children, and give my own views and how this has developed my understanding in my role as a trainee teacher. The readings I have chosen to discuss and compare are: An Introduction to ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning (Ray Potter), The Significance of Young ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Personal, Social and Emotional Development (Dowling M) and How Children Learn (Curtis A, OÃ¢â¬â¢Hagan M). Potter discusses how behaviourism and cognitive development are the two most widely regarded theories in the approaches to learning and how these theories have implications for teaching. Ã¢â¬ËBehaviourism is a theory of learning focusing on observable behaviours and discounting any mental activity.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Pritchard 2008:6). He discusses several theorists and how their theories help children learn, and how teachers manage learning more effectively in the classroom. He talks about behaviourism and how children learn from life experiences. Ã¢â¬ËBehaviourist claims that we are what we are, not because of innate intelligence or genetic factors, but solely due to our life experiencesÃ¢â¬â¢. Potter (cited in Jacques et al 2004:63). Skinner, a pioneer in behaviourism, believed that behaviour could be controlled through Ã¢â¬ËconditioningÃ¢â¬â¢, the act of rewarding desired behaviour (positive reinforcement) and ignoring undesired behaviour (negative reinforcement). Many of SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theories branch from his animal experiments, whereby he would reward with food and punish when saw unacceptable behaviour. This is highlighted in An Introduction to ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning (Potter), as to how this theory has been adapted in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s schools. Ã¢â¬Å"Conditioning occurs in many schools in the morning when the children first arrive in the playground. They will be playing and talking to each other when they see their teacher come into the playground. The children will immediately line up in front of their teacher ready to go in to schoolÃ¢â¬ . This I observe everyday in my school setting. In the Introduction to ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning (Ray Potter) it states that children achieve well through the Ã¢â¬Å"behaviourist psychology which goes back many years to Pavlov and Skinner, thus children learn by listening carefully to get the correct stimulus and through the repeated reinforcement of correct responsesÃ¢â¬ . This is evident in schools today, whereby teachers encourage children to chant and repeat facts across the curriculum. This is in the hope that repetition will result in the information becoming innate, consequently allowing the children to regurgitate at the drop of a hat, but it could argued do the children lose the meaning. One has to ask however, how successful is this for all children? Biggs (cited in Leask 2009:89) Ã¢â¬ËA pupilÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation influences the learning strategies they adopt. A pupil with an instrumental motivation is likely to adopt reproducing or rote learning strategies.Ã¢â¬â¢ Do children retain this knowledge? We know now after many years of research that not all children benefit from the dated Ã¢â¬Ëtalk and chalkÃ¢â¬â¢ style of teaching. The philosopher Confucius cited in Ray PotterÃ¢â¬â¢s In the Introduction to ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning, pondered the theory Ã¢â¬Å"I do and I understandÃ¢â¬ , this was later developed by Piaget who based his cognitive theories and Ã¢â¬Ëemphasis on doing, activity and experience children learn through interaction with their environmentÃ¢â¬â¢. (Kitsen et al 1997:2) Ã¢â¬ËPiaget was actually keenly aware of the importance of social factors in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning.Ã¢â¬â¢ Bruner believed that children think through three modes, enactive (actions), iconic (pictures), and symbolic (words and numbers). Providing the information is presented in an appropriate way and the information is appropriate to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s age, then the child will be able to understand and learn from it. BrunerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning is active and they base concepts on their previous knowledge. The past knowledge helps the learner to process the new information to support decisions in the form of cognitive development. This allows the child to build on past experience and develop further the information given. Like, Vygotsky, Bruner also believed that social interaction and culture played a big role in cognitive development. Ã¢â¬ËBruner felt that children were organised according to their experiences and that they are active in their learningÃ¢â¬â¢ (Tassoni, 2005:197). Potter also discusses cognitive theories and how the next generation theorist such as Piaget, Vygostsky and Bruner believe that memory, understanding and thinking are vital in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. Ã¢â¬ËBut these are the very stuff of the next generation of theorists, the cognitivists.Ã¢â¬â¢ Potter, (cited in Jacques et al 2004:66). The role of social interaction is based on theories from Vygotsky and Bruner. To put the role of social interaction into place at school the pupil and teacher need to work together by the teacher helping to create meaning, rather than dictating what is to be learned. Learning through social interaction does not always occur in school. Children also learn through social interaction with their peers, parents and other adults. A prime example of this social impact that is used in many schools today is the use of the school council. Children regardless of age, economical background, race and gender can voice their views and have their views challenged in a safe environment. Ã¢â¬ËSocial interaction (particularly those which take place between themselves) may facilitate the course of development by exposing a child to other points of view and to conflicting ideas which may encourage him to re-think or review his ideasÃ¢â¬â¢ (Wood 1998:17). PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory maintains that children need to overcome a sequence of stages in development. These stages are complex and appear in four main categories. The sensory-motor stage begins from birth to two years, the child learns through sensory experiences and movement. The pre-operational stage from approximately two to seven years of age, when the child begins to develop the skill of using symbols and how things look, yet they are unable to direct logical thinking. By the age of seven to eleven or twelve children have begun to make connections by thinking logically and associating their thoughts to concrete situations, Piaget describes this as the concrete-operational stage. At approximately eleven or twelve the formal operational stage falls into place, by this age to adulthood we begin to use more sophisticated levels of abstract and logical thinking. He believes the development of stages from childhood to adulthood is a consequence of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experience with the environment around them. They are learnt through assimilation, accommodation and adaptation. Ã¢â¬ËEvery living thing must adapt to its environment if it is to survive.Ã¢â¬â¢ Vygotsky focused on language and communication as a support to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development. He looked at how children interact with their peers and adults and how it influences their communication and language on a social level. This form of social interaction does not always have to be verbal, gesture and body language is communication learned though peers or adults. Another aspect of VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is the zone of proximal development. This is when development is gained through social behaviour. The skills of social interaction can be developed further with guidance from adults and peers. We as facilitators can support learners by scaffolding, gradually reducing support so the child becomes capable of independently completing a task. Ã¢â¬ËThe Ã¢â¬Ëzone of proximal developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ seems a vital idea for teachers to have in mind when talking to individual children. Could it be applied to pairs? Or to small groups? Or to a whole class?Ã¢â¬â¢ (Kitson et al, 1997:154). Dowling discusses how childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s personal, social and emotional development has a significant factor in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. Dowling explains that three themes often occur in any debate about early childhood issues, which are -context, continuity and controversy. An ideal example of this in practise is a well managed Foundation Stage classroom. Being an unqualified Reception teacher for the past two years, I have observed and experienced this environmental situation of context, continuity and controversy. For example role play areas are set in line with the topic e.g. Healthy Eating- setting up a restaurant. However the theory of constructivism being the idea that things are the way they are, is socially constructed e.g., boys play with cars, girls play with dolls. This is an integral part of everyday life. Toys are being marketed gender specifically. Children often arrive in a school setting with premeditated views coming from the way they have been brought up and through media advertisement. This can counteract the good practise that is trying to be initiated in foundation Stage settings of today. Cultural assumptions, according to Richardson, the Ã¢â¬ËnatureÃ¢â¬â¢ of girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ and boysÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour reproduce rather than expose inequality and work against young women in schools while supporting gendered stereotypes in society.Ã¢â¬â¢ (1997:25). When the children immerse themselves in the theme, their personal, social and emotional development thrives and their creativity blossoms. The current way the Foundation Stage is run nationally has been very successful in that funding has been given to early yearÃ¢â¬â¢s education to allow schools to be successful in their early years teaching and development. However the new government has controversially pulled all of this funding and at present we are unsure as educators of which directive we will be undertaking. In contrast Dowling explains that in China children who attend Kindergartens receive homework in literacy and numeracy. The focus is on academic achievement rather than personal, social and emotional development. Therefore it has been found that these children rarely gain these skills in later life. Dowling (2000:17) Ã¢â¬ËAsian education methods have valued academic development while damaging other aspects of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, which help them to live and achieve in society.Ã¢â¬â¢ It is similar to the theories of Piaget, Bruner and Skinner but I believe the actual concept that is being modelled is wrong if we are to educate young people to live successfully in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Similarly Curtis and OÃ¢â¬â¢Hagan discuss how factors can affect learning. They introduce the chapter by focusing on Ã¢â¬ËWhat is learning? They discuss several ways children learn and factors which can affect this. These are development, environmental factors, and periods of learning, memory, concentration, cognitive styles, and intelligence. They believe children construct their knowledge and understanding through their experience with the environment, and that learning is active and experience based. They agree that children are not less knowledgeable than adults, that children just see the world differently at their level. In my classroom adults often celebrate when they have learnt something new, especially when the learning has been imparted from the child to an adult. The child just prioritises their learning differently from the adult. Children need this scaffolding in order to develop in many ways. This lending itself to VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. (Pollard 1994:13) Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢they are thus seen as intelligent social actors who, although their knowledge base may be limited in absolute terms, are capable in many ways.Ã¢â¬â¢ In conclusion to the theories looked at, are all based around childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and similar in view.. It is possible to learn from each of them and use the theory in practice in a classroom. As a teacher I would be more inclined towards VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. This is mainly due to the fact that we can challenge children to go beyond what they already know in our school environment. (Curtis et al 2005:36) Ã¢â¬ËEducators began to realise that a stimulating environment could increase intelligence.Ã¢â¬â¢ For children to experience a broad and balanced curriculum we as facilitators need to be able to challenge and help children develop further. In order to help them do this we need to scaffold their learning by gradually withdrawing support and guidance so that the child can perform the task independently. I feel scaffolding is a skill that will develop overtime with experience promoting desired behaviour. (Corrie, 2002:174) Ã¢â¬ËTeachers scaffold childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learn ing when they help them to achieve something that they, could not do without the teachers assistance.Ã¢â¬â¢ The ability to judge how much and how little support is a difficult notion and varies from child to child. From Piaget, I have learned that for children to work independently and solve problems they need to build on their past experiences. Despite this I believe that with the guidance of a more knowledgeable peer or adult the child can learn through social interaction. Through social interaction a child might learn today what might take them weeks to learn if left to explore individually. I would suggest that if we can help and challenge children to go beyond what they know, they would continuously be learning new knowledge. I am also aware from working in inner city school; social factors have a huge influence in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. I understand how important it is to promote positive role modelling and give children first hand experiences in order to learn. Ã¢â¬ËThe context of the school can make a significant difference to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, self concept and self esteem as these accounts testify.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Rogers, 2009:13). Bibliography Jacques, K. Hyland, R. (2004) Professional Studies: Primary Phase, London: Learning Matters Ltd. Kitson, N. Merry, R. (1997)Teaching in the Primary School, London: Routledge. Leask, M (2009) Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools. Oxon: Routledge. Llleris, K. (2007) How We Learn: learning and non learning in school and beyond. London: Routledge Pollard, A. Bourne, J. (1994) Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. London: Sage. Prichard, A. (2008) Ways of Learning: Learning theories and Learning Styles in the Classroom. Oxon: Routledge. Richardson, V (1997) Constructivist Teacher Education: Building New Understandings. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd Rogers, B (2009) Manage ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Challenging Behaviour London: Sage Tassoni, P. (2005) Diploma in Child Care and Education. Oxford: Reed Educational Professional Publishing Ltd. Thornton, S. (2008) Understanding Human Development. London: Pelgrave Macmillan Wood , D. (1998) How Children Think and Learn, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Imprisonment of Women Exposed in The Yellow Wallpaper When asked the question of why she chose to write 'The Yellow Wallpaper', Charlotte Perkins Gilman claimed that experiences in her own life dealing with a nervous condition, then termed 'melancholia', had prompted her to write the short story as a means to try and save other people from a similar fate. Although she may have suffered from a similar condition to the narrator of her illuminating short story, Gilman's story cannot be coined merely a tale of insanity. Insanity is the vehicle for Gilman's larger comment on the atrocities of social conformity. The main character of "The Yellow Wallpaper" comes to recognize the inhumanity in society's treatment of women, and in her awakening to this, visualizes her torment in the faded yellow wallpaper that hangs in her chambers, her jail. The unnamed narrator of the tale is purposefully left unnamed; the narrator could be any wife, any mother, any woman. Gilman transforms the hysterical, insane female of early 19th century literature into g enius. The first striking image that readers of "The Yellow Wallpaper" are presented with is not that of a room, it is not of the house, but of the character of John, the husband. John is described as a man of a "practical and extreme" nature (246). His presence throughout the tale provides for the narrator's motive. John refuses to accept her wife's condition; he does not believe that there is anything truly wrong with her. If a physician of high standing, and one's own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression, a slight hysterical tendency - what is one to do? (246) The narrator is possessed by her hus... ...ion. Sven Birkerts. Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, 1992. 387-400. Haney-Peritz, Janice. "Monumental Feminism and Literature's Ancestral House: Another Look at 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Women's Studies 12 (1986): 113-128. Johnson, Greg. "Gilman's Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction 26 (Fall 1989): 521-530. King, Jeanette, and Pam Morris. "On Not Reading Between the Lines: Models of Reading in 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction 26.1 (Winter 1989): 23-32. Knight, Denise D. "The Reincarnation of Jane: 'Through This' - Gilman's Companion to 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Women's Studies 20 (1992): 287-302. Rigney, Barbara Hill. Madness and Sexual Politics in the Feminist Novel: Studies in Bronte, Woolf, Lessing, and Atwood. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Contents 1. Introduction2 2. Concrete attacks2 3. Alkali-Silica Reaction Ã¢â¬â ASR3 4. Sulphate Attack5 5. Reference List8 1. Introduction This report was issued in order to provide an in depth understanding of how a surveyor can differentiate between Alkali-Silica Reaction and Sulphate attacks in concrete when inspecting a building. In order to satisfy the requirements for this report, the author will give a detailed description of both kind of attacks, different study areas, experiments, diagnosis and forms of repair.To be able to define and analyse this topic, the author of this report has used different sources of reference such as books, academic journals, World Wide Web and several British Standards. By the end of this report, the writer will be able to demonstrate that the questioned concrete attacks can be differentiated by any professional surveyor when inspecting the concrete in a building. 2. Concrete attacks Chemical attacks usually occurs when using poor quality cemen t although good concrete has been known to be subjected to conditions that can lead to its deterioration.The environment Ã¢â¬Å"suppliesÃ¢â¬ several physical and chemical forces which can contribute to concrete deterioration. BRE (2005) delivered a full list of chemical attacks that can arise both land contaminated by human and natural ground. There are several rarely occurred chemical attacks that are mainly caused by contaminated land; these are chemical species such as ammonium or chromium, but also organic such as phenols. The higher the quantity of these chemicals is, the higher the concrete attack.The most known forms of concrete attacks are: * Chloride penetration leading to corrosion of steel and spilling of the concrete cover; * Inadequate cover of reinforcing steel. Less common causes of concrete deterioration caused by chemicals or chemical reaction are: * Cycles of freezing and thawing; * Carbonation resulting in an increase of steel corrosion; * Sulphate attack; * Sh rinking aggregates; * Alkali-aggregate reactions. . Alkali-Silica Reaction Ã¢â¬â ASR It is believed that there are three types of alkali-aggregate reactions that will affect the condition of concrete: alkali-silicate reaction, alkali-carbonate reaction and alkali-silica reaction. It is believed that the alkali-silica reaction Ã¢â¬Å"may be found in the concrete because microcrystalline quartz or stained quartz is often present in aggregates contacting phyllosilicatesÃ¢â¬ (Hobbs D. W. , 1988).The Institution of Structural Engineers (1988) described Alkali-Silica Reaction as being a chemical process in which the alkalis, found mostly in cement, when combined with specific types of silica found in aggregates, particularly in moist condition, will produce an alkali-silica gel that eventually will absorb the moisture from concrete, causing cracking and disruptions of concrete. British Cement Association (1993) advised that in order to determine that the inspected concrete cracking is a result of Alkali-Silica Reaction, the surveyor should sample and test the area Ã¢â¬Å"before any definite interpretation can be attemptedÃ¢â¬ .Because of poor workmanship, shrinkage, weathering or differential stresses, the concrete can produce characteristics that will often be confused with Alkali-Silica Reaction. BCA (1993) are aware that Ã¢â¬Å"it is not always easy to distinguish these features from those indicative of ASRÃ¢â¬ . Their recommendation is that if suspected the sample should be taken into laboratory and further investigated. Because of the damping characteristics, the surveyor should allow dry weather when inspecting a suspected Alkali-Silica Reaction area.The degree of wetting should be recorded by the surveyor as this might be due to rain, condensation, leaking pipes, water run-off or poor detailing of construction. A second inspection is recommended if damp patches at the junction of the cracks are observed. It is known that Alkali-Silica Reaction will form a mapping crack at the surface of the concrete. Fig 1 is and extreme example of macrocracking found at the Hoover Dam, USA. Fig1. Example of cracking due to ASR at the Hoover Dam, USA Image taken from Hobbs, D. W. (1988, pp. 16)As it can be seen from the image, there are specific signs that this is an Alkali-Silica Reaction such as damp patches at the junction of the cracks and the edges of the cracks often appearing to be light in colour. Cracking like this will often be confused by surveyors as being caused by an expansion or contraction. As it was said before, one major feature of Alkali-Silica Reaction in concrete is cracking. In order to record data for further investigations, the surveyor should sketch or photograph the crack pattern. One other characteristic of Alkali-Silica Reaction is discoloration.This occurs along the cracks and although similar to rust caused by reinforce bars within the concrete, the surveyor is advised that colour photographs are to be taken for a n off-site second investigation. If occurred in reinforced concrete, the cracks caused by Alkali-Silica Reaction will tend to follow the lines of the reinforcing bars. Although often confused with the cracks produced by the corrosion of the reinforcements, in order to provide a definite confirmation of ASR, the surveyor should enforce a microscopic examination of a sample taken from the interior of the concrete.It is often that the surveyors confuse the cracking pattern of the affected cement. Other characteristics of Alkali-Silica Reaction are discoloration, efflorescence, exudations and pop-outs. 4. Sulphate Attack Ã¢â¬Å"Sulphate attack is the term used to describe a series of chemical reactions between sulphate ions and the components of hardened concrete, principally the cement paste, caused by exposure of concrete to sulphate moistureÃ¢â¬ ( Skalny et al. 2002, p. 3) It is well known that sulphate attack mainly affects the brickwork and concrete by creating a disruption of t he mortar. The sulphate attack can create expansion, bowing and/or cracking of affected material. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are the most vulnerable to sulphate environments (Bonshor 1996, Amin et al. 2007). OPC is one of the most common cement used in construction industry. Its main composition is ground limestone and clay.When burned, these components form the basis of most concretes. According to Ramson (1993, p. 19) if bauxite is used instead of clay, a high-alumina cement is produced. The main characteristic of this cement is its rapid rate of strengths developed and also if not Ã¢â¬ËcoveredÃ¢â¬â¢ the high resistance to sulphate attacks. This can be one of the first evidence for surveyors that the concrete is not affected by sulphate attack. The main idea of sulphate attacks is simple.Bonshor and Bonshor (1996) describes that the sulphate salts migrating from neighbouring building materials, or sometimes even enclosed in th e groundwater react with elements of the OPC to produce ettringite or thaumasite. The most common circumstance of sulphate attack is when the unprotected concrete contains sulphate based materials or is exposed to sulphate groundwater. There are three main requirements necessary for sulphate attack to occur: (i) soluble sulphate salts such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.It is important to specify that attacks from different sulphates will have different result. Mortars or concretes attacked by sulphates such as calcium or sodium will have a soft mush; on the other side when attacks form magnesium sulphate occurs, this being considered the most aggressive, the main feature of this attack are the salts that sometimes crystallize out or near the surface of the attacked material; (ii) tricalcium aluminate consisted in ordinary or rapid hardening cement; (iii) a persistent wetness on the material.To understand the main manifestations of sulphate attacks in building component s, the author will describe the visual characteristics that a surveyor will look for, in order to distinguish and recognise when sulphate attack has occurred. * The mortar in the brickwork is considered by Addleson and Rice (1995) to be under sulphate attack from as early as two years after construction. One of the main visual appearances of the attack is the white colour of the cement. The mortar subjected to sulphate attack will become loose at the surface, sometimes presenting cracks along the bed joists.It is important to mention that surveyors often confuse the horizontal cracking from rendered walls caused by corrosion of strip ties in cavity walls with the sulphate attack. Bonshor and Bonshor (1996) recommend that if not confident with the diagnosis from visual inspection, the surveyor should sample the affected mortar and further examine in a specialist laboratory. University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol (2006) advice that sulphate attacks occurs where saturation is greatest and usually around parapet walls and chimney.This is due to the large exposer to rainfall. UWE believe that although in some cases repairs are possible, in most instances once started, the sulphate attack is impossible to stop therefore the only option is the re-building. * When the sulphate attack is detected in rendered brickwork there are several visual signs for a surveyor to distinguish the type of attack. Wide horizontal and vertical cracks will appear in the rendering. Outward curling of the rendering in the cracks might appear as a result of sulphate attack. Fig2. Example of Sulphate Attack on chimney brickworkImage taken from University of the West of England, Bristol, (2006) The adhesion of the rendering on the brickwork may fail; this can result in rendering falling off either from one brick or even a large portion this depending on the seriousness of the attack on brickwork. If untreated, the brickwork may be exposed to efflorescence. * There are several occasi ons when the sulphate attack occurs on the underside of the ground slabs. If not isolated by a damp proof membrane, the salts in the ground will react with the Portland cement causing a map-pattern of cracking.Bonshor and Bonshor (1996) recommend that BRE Digest 363 will provide guidance in the case of a sulphate attack on concrete. Generally sulphate attack in ground-bearing slabs will form cracks in a solid ground floor mainly if the recycled colliery shale has been used as capping layer for the ground underneath the slab. Because the sulphate attack in ground bearing slabs, the surveyor will have to investigate further whether the slab has a damp proof membrane and if possible what sort of material has been used as colliery shale fill.WRAP Organisation (2011) recommends colliery shale should be tested for sulphates especially if it is to be used in proximity to concrete. As building professional, a surveyor will be able to differentiate between Alkali-Silica Reaction and Sulphate attacks in concrete. There are several visual differences between these two chemical attacks. One of the major confusion made by surveyors is when inspecting a cracking pattern in a building. It is highly recommended that if suspected, the surveyor should take samples for laboratory examination. There are numerous chemical reactions that are likely to produce disruptive cracking in buildings.This is the reason why a professional surveyor should not rush and give diagnosis unless entirely sure about the cause. Word count: 1759 5. Reference List Addleson, L. and Rice, C. (1995) Performance of materials in buildings. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Alan Wood & Partners (2012) Sulphate attack . Available at: http://www. alanwood. co. uk/pdf/Sulphate-Attack. pdf (Accessed on 5th October 2012). Amin, M. M. , Jamaludin, S. B. , Pa, F. C. & Chuen, K. K. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËEffects of magnesium sulphate attack on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mortarsÃ¢â¬â¢, Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta, (26) , pp. 235-242. Bonshor, R. B. and Bonshor, L.L. (1996) Cracking in buildings. London: Construction Research Communication. British Cement Association (1993) The diagnosis of alkali-silica reaction. Available at: http://homepage. tudelft. nl/n89v3/LinkedDocuments/1992-DiagnosisOfASR. pdf (Accessed on 5th October 2012). Cook, G. K. and Hinks, A. J. (1992) Appraising building defects: perspectives on stability and hygrothermal performance. Essex: Longman Scientific & Technical. El-hachem, R. , Roziere, E. , Grondin, F. & Loukili, A. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËNew procedure to investigate external sulphate attack on cementitious materialsÃ¢â¬â¢, Cement & Concrete Composites, (34), pp. 57-364. Farny, J. A. & Kosmatka, S. H. (1997) Diagnosis and control of Alkali-aggregate reactions in concrete. Available at: http://www. nebrconcagg. com/assets/PromotionPages/Mix%20Design/ASR1. PDF (Accessed on 6th October 2012). Giaccio, G. , Zerbino, R. , Ponce, J. M. & Batic, O. R. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËMechanical behavi our of concretes damaged by alkali-silica reactionÃ¢â¬â¢, Cement and Concrete Research, (38), pp. 993-1004. Hobbs, D. W. (1988) Alkali-silica reaction in concrete. London: Thomas Telford. Mittermayr, F. , Bauer, C. , Klammer, D. , Bottcher, M. E. , Leis, A. Escher, P. & Deitzel, M. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËConcrete under sulphate attack: an isotope study on sulphur sourcesÃ¢â¬â¢, Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 48 (1), pp. 105-117. Ransom, W. H. , (1993) Building failures: diagnosis and avoidance. 2nd edn. London: E & FN Spon. Sachlova, S. , Prikryl, R. & Pertold, Z. (2010) Ã¢â¬ËAlkali-silica reaction products: Comparison between samples from concrete structures and laboratory test specimensÃ¢â¬â¢, Materials Characterization, (61), pp. 1379-1393. Sarkan, S. , Mahadevan, S. , Meeussen, J. C. L. , van der Sloot, H. & Kosson, D. S. 2010) Ã¢â¬ËNumerical simulation of cementitious materials degradation under external sulphate attackÃ¢â¬â¢, Cement & Concrete Composites, (32 ), pp. 241-252. Skalny, J. , Marchand, J. & Odler, I. (2002) Sulphate attack on concrete. London: Spon Press. The Concrete Society (1985) Alkali-silica reaction: new structures-specifying the answer existing structures-diagnosis and assessment. London: Concrete Society. The Institution of Structural Engineers (1988) Structural effects of alkali-silica reaction: interim technical guidance on appraisal of existing structures. London: the Institution of Structural Engineers.University of the West of England, Bristol, (2006) Durability of clay bricks. Available at: https://environment7. uwe. ac. uk/resources/constructionsample/Conweb/walls/bricks/section6. htm (Accessed on 20th October 2012). WRAP, (2011) Burnt and unburnt colliery spoil, Available at: http://aggregain. wrap. org. uk/applications/wrap_pdf/aggregain/pdf_material. cfm? id=2910 (Accessed on 22th October 2012). Zerbino, R. , Giaccio, G. , Batic, O. R. & Isaia, G. C. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËAlkali-silica reaction in mortars and concre tes incorporating natural rice husk ashÃ¢â¬â¢, Construction and Building Materials, (36), pp. 796-806.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The Islamic Empires nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In early modern history, there were three major Islamic empires that became prominent. The Ottoman Empire, the Safavid Empire, and the Mughals. We will descuss the Development of these empires by listing their similarities and differences, and their political, social and cultural backgrounds. Next, we will get into the three empires reign of power and also give a discription of some of the great leaders of these empires and their legacy. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;All of these Islamic Empires had Turkish ruling dynasties. The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals came from nomadic, Turkish-speaking peoples of the central Asia who conquered the settled agricultural lands of Anatolia, PersiaÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Sulayman the Magnificent also expanded the Ottoman territory under his rule dramatically by conquering Baghdad and adding the Tigris and Euphrates valleys to the Ottoman domain. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Safavid empire was first ruled by Shah Ismail, a 14 year old boy. He gained control of the empire by entering Tabriz at the head of an army and laying claim to the ancient Persian imperial title of the shah. The Safavids traced their ancestry back to Safi al Din, leader of a sufi religious order in northwestern Persia. Shah Ismail also decided for the religion of the Safavid empire to be Twelver Shiism . Twelver Shiism held that there had been twelve infallible imams ( or religious leaders) after Muhammad, beginning with the prophetÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin and son-in-law Ali. The belief was that the twelfth or Ã¢â¬Å"hiddenÃ¢â¬ iman would one day return to take power and spread his true religion. Safavid propaganda suggested that Shah Ismail was himself the missing imam, or even the reincarnation of Allah. Shah IsmailÃ¢â¬â¢s followers believed that he had the power to keep them safe in battle. In the Battle of Chaldiran, IsmailÃ¢â¬â¢s forces attacked heavi ly the lines of the Ottoman empire and suffered devastating casualties. Shah Abbas the Great fully revived the Safavid Empire by moving the capital to a more centralized location and he encouraged trade with other lands. He also reformed the administrative and military institutions of the empire. Shah Abbas led the Safavids to numerousShow MoreRelated Shakespeares King Lear - The Redemption of King Lear Essay746 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Redemption of King Lear It is said that no other playwright illustrates the human condition like William Shakespeare. Furthermore, it is said that no other play illustrates the human condition like King Lear. The story of a bad king who becomes a good man is truly one of the deepest analyses of humanity in literary history; and it can be best seen through the evolution of Lear himself. In essence, King Lear goes through hell in order to compensate for his sins. LearsRead More King Lear Essay1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKing Lear Every situation in life has an appearance, and a reality. The appearance of a situation is usually what we want to see. The reality, what is really going on, is not always as obvious to the observer. People who cannot penetrate through the superficial appearance of a situation will see only what they want to believe is true; often, the reality of a situation is unappealing to the perceiver. These are the circumstances surrounding the conflict that occurs in William ShakespearesRead MoreThe Tragedy Of King Lear1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Tragedy of King Lear: William Shakespeare, a playwright of the 1600 s, has been well known for writing many plays and poems. His play titled The Tragedy of King Lear is remembered globally and is learned in many schools today. A continuous theme in King Lear is a disguise, which consists of many different forms. There are physical, manipulative, and figurative disguises. In the beginning of the play, characters already fall into this category. In the first act, King Lear is at old age andRead More Shakespeares King Lear - Goneril and Cordelia in King Lear953 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Characters of Goneril and Cordelia in King Learnbsp;nbsp; Nothing makes a story like a good villain, or in this case, good villainess. They are the people we love to hate and yearn to watch burn. Goneril, of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s King Lear, is no exception. Her evils flamed from the very beginning of the play with her lack of sincerity in professing her love for her father: Sir, I love you more than word can wield the matter; Dearer than eyesight, space, and liberty; Beyond what can be valuedRead MoreThe Tragedy Of King Lear Essay1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play The Tragedy of King Lear, human suffering is exploited through exploring social destruction caused by love, lust, and loss. King LearÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom is broken down through the excess of love and hate. Behaviors resulting from such emotions becomes tragic flaws for the characters within the play, as the need for approval disrupts all natural social order, which is then represented by the natural world. The natural world and nature of society become intertwined as the plotRead MoreThe Villains of King Lear2097 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Villains of King Lear Ã¢â¬Å"A villain must be a thing of power, handled with delicacy and grace. He must be wicked enough to excite our aversion, strong enough to arouse our fear, human enough to awaken some transient gleam of sympathy. We must triumph in his downfall, yet not barbarously nor with contempt, and the close of his career must be in harmony with all its previous development.Ã¢â¬ -Agnes Repplier What makes a villain a villain? Some people might say that it is maniacal laughter and aRead MoreEssay on King Lear949 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages King Lear Summary nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The play, Ã¢â¬Å"King LearÃ¢â¬ by William Shakespeare, starts with noblemen Kent and Gloucester having a conversation and the audience finds out that Gloucester has two sons. Edgar who is his heir, and Edmund his unimportant son. This info. leads to the mini-plot. Then, Lear enters to say that he is going to end his lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s tasks and problems. He then points to the map, he tells the people there that he will split his land into three parts. They are goingRead MoreBlindness-King Lear1809 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIt seems ironic that both the oldest characters, Gloucester and Lear, who are blind either metaphorically or physically. They both exemplify that wisdom does not always come with old age. The parallel characters are very important to each other, Lear who is blinded metaphorically, and Gloucester who is physically blinded. Both characters undergo radical changes and their once sightless decisions become regrettable actions. They are unable to see people for who they truly are; thus their tragedy isRead More Shakespeares King Lear - Suffering of Cordelia in King Lear1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestragedy of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s King Lear is made far more tragic and painful by the presence and suffering of the kings youngest daughter, Cordelia. While our sympathy for the king is somewhat restrained by his brutal cruelty towards others, there is nothing to dampen our emotional response to Cordelias suffering. Nothing, that is, at first glance. Harley Granville-Barker justifies her irreconcilable fate thus: the tragic truth about life to the Shakespeare that wrote King Lear... includes its capriciousRead More plotlear King Lear Essays: Importance of the Parallel Plot in King Lear810 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Importance of the Parallel Plot in King Lear nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Literature can be expressed using many different techniques and styles of writing, some very effective and others not as much.nbsp;nbsp; One of the methods chosen by many is the use of so called parallel plots. Parallel plots, or sometimes referred to as minor, give the opportunity of experiencing a secondary storyline going along with the main plot that otherwise would be unmentioned.nbsp;
Saturday, December 28, 2019
In the work, Nicomachean Ethics, the philosopher Aristotle creates a guideline for those who are serious about pursuing happiness. Aristotles recommendations for finding happiness are not accepted today without some struggle and careful examination. In Aristotles time, slaves, women and children were not truly considered human; so in many cases the philosopher is directing his words towards free males only. It is necessary to understand that by overlooking this discrimination and applying it to all people, one can discover the timeless wisdom of Aristotle. To begin, one must learn what happiness means to Aristotle. He considers happiness to be simply the name of the good life. This is not to say that the good life producesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Only when these two aspects of the soul are engaged can one be closer to achieving happiness. Aristotle refutes elitist thinking by stating that all people have the capacity to reason within the soul. The good and bad characteristics in people come from the kinds of activities that they desire to undertake. Aristotle also generally defines the good life as simply doing what one wants to do, but happiness can only truly be achieved when one desires to do the correct things. The next topic to consider, then, is what kind of rational activities fulfill the purpose of a human being. Aristotle feels that as a human, one should actualize the capacities of the soul through activity. Here one encounters the debate of activity versus productivity. In current society, productivity is the measure of success, and activity for its own sake is rarely considered worthwhile. Aristotle does not believe in the importance of productivity relative to ones happiness. Instead, he feels that one should engage in activity for no external end or result whatsoever. Those activities that are chosen simply because of a desire to experience the activity are often the ones that bring the most happiness. Activities that have no product create a sense of existence for the one engaging in the activity. This, however, is not a product. Instead it is merely a way of defining or referring to the activity. An example of this kind of activity is conversation. If conversation occurs inS how MoreRelatedThe Role Of Happiness . Ã¢â¬Å"Happiness Is The Meaning And The1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Role of Happiness Ã¢â¬Å"Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existenceÃ¢â¬ (Aristotle). In ethics, we study the place of morality in a social construct, where happiness is the core of ethical concern. Happiness for the individual, happiness for the majority, happiness for nature. What is the key to a happy life? Aristotle believes the key is eudaimonia, or a state of having a good soul or being in a contented state of being healthy, happy, and prosperousRead MoreThe Ethics Of Plato And Aristotle977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In this essay, I will be examining the ethics of Plato and Aristotle. I will explain the five fundamental concepts of Plato and Aristotle. I will focus on their theories on the good life as a life of justice, censorship, knowledge and the good life. I will first explain PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics. Plato was a philosopher, both a rationalist and absolutist. According to Plato, people must be schooled to obtain certain kinds of knowledge for example mathematics, philosophy etc. The training will give themRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Juice 880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessought out explanations that were unorthodox. His principles of common sense were built on naturalism and self-realization, which greatly influenced the world. His systematic concept of logic touched upon ethics. As an illustration, in the movie Ã¢â¬Å"Juice,Ã¢â¬ some of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and principles on friendship, character, and happiness are heavily portrayed throughout the film. The movie Ã¢â¬Å"Juice,Ã¢â¬ is a story of four male teenage friends from Harlem. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re causing trouble around the neighborhood and runningRead MoreThe Good Man Based on Aristotles Nicomachean Ethics Essay1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Good Man Based on Aristotles Nicomachean Ethics Plato believed that a man could only become good by knowing the truth, and he could not know the truth without being good. This shows to be somewhat of a paradoxical argument. On the other hand, Aristotle had a different theory regarding the goodness of man. Aristotle claimed that the good man was the norm and the measure of ethical truth. Pertaining to Aristotles definitions, in this essay I will explain the meaning of the previous statementRead MoreExamining the Ethics of Plato and Aristotle Essay1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis essay will be examining the ethics of Plato (428-347 BCE) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C). I will firstly attempt to summarise the five fundamental concepts of Plato and Aristotle before providing my own opinion and view on their ethics. I will concentrate on their theories on the good life as a life of justice, censorship, knowledge and the good life. I will first examine PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics. Plato was a philosopher who was both a rationalist and absolutist. According to his view, people must beRead MoreThe Human Function as It Pertains to Happiness Essay1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Human Function as it Pertains to Happiness Humans have a function, according to Aristotle, and so it would follow that fulfilling that function makes us happy. Before we can establish that fulfilment of purpose results in happiness, we must first establish what the human function actually is, and also what constitutes good and happiness for humans. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments for happiness and human purpose help to provide answers to these questions, though as with all philosophical topics there areRead MoreAristotle s Theory Of Happiness1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLife Happiness is one of the biggest subjects that have the most influence in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. People have discovered that happiness is actually related to multiple benefits of our mental and physical health. Every person wants to experience true happiness throughout his/her life. Nevertheless, everyone is suffering finding sustainable happiness. Aristotle, in his work called Nicomachean Ethics, presents the concept that living a virtuous life will produce sustainable happiness forRead MoreThe Aristotle And Immanuel Kant1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAristotle believes that pleasure can be included when preforming an action; while Kant believes that a duty is preforming the right action without the need of inclinations. In this paper, I will present a similarity and difference between AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of a virtuous act and KantÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of dutiful action. In The Nicomachean Ethics, The source of a virtuous action happens when your passions and thoughts are balanced. It is balanced when there is a middle ground between excess and a deficiencyRead MoreThe Nature of Man as Political Animal Essay1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Not everyone will agree with Aristotles political theory, but it is essential to understand the principals that underline the new political theories. Aristotles politics is one of the most influential books of political philosophy. His main ideology consists in that a man is by nature a political animal because he can reason and communicate with others, therefore, has the potential to alter or change his living conditions for better because he can recognize the difference from right or wrong.Read MoreIs Torture Morally Wrong?1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespunish or in timidate them or to extract information from themÃ¢â¬ (Vaughn, 604). The thought of torture can be a means of promoting justice by using both the Utilitarian view and the Aristotelian view. Using John Stuart Mills concept of utilitarianism, he focuses on the greatest happiness principle which helps us understand his perspective on torture and whether he believes it is acceptable to do so, and Aristotle uses the method of virtue of ethics to helps us better understand if he is for torture. The